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Review of PEMF devices, programs, frequencies, and brainwaves

September 10, 2019 Andrey Kipor

Review of the PEMF devices, programs, frequencies, and brainwaves

The PEMF technology applications came from the former USSR (Russia) and Eastern Europe countries to Korea and Japan and then to the West.

In Russia, Asian and European countries, many practitioners use different types of PEMF wave shapes, frequencies, programs, and devices types for almost 50 years.
Ereada is the first company which developed the variable PEMF frequency machines integrated into the multifunctional warming mats with natural amethyst.
 
We introduced the first Purple collection of warming Amethyst mats with the pulsed Magnetism feature from Korea in 2016.
 
In 2019 a new line of Gray Amethyst mattresses with suede surface and two amethyst showing windows like on our Brown mats entered the market.
 
Gray Ereada® Amethyst mats with PEMF
 
Our Purple mats initially used the 60 Hz frequency.
 
Now all our bio-magnetic mats come with an adjustable PEMF frequency. 
They generate eight levels 8-64 Hz (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64 Hz) magnetic pulsation with an additional automatic random program for “calming and activating” for both the Purple and Gray collections of our mats.
  
The 20"x32" Gray Ereada® Amethyst Mini mat features two pure sine shape PEMF coils. The 24"x59" Gray and Purple Ereada® Amethyst Compact Pro (Midsize) mats have three coils each. The Professional size 29"x73" bio-magnetic mat comes with four coils and the largest Single size mat 39"x75" has five pulsed magnetism coils.
 
Additionally, each of Ereada Purple mats features 12 pcs static (permanent) magnets.  The 20"x32" Purple Ereada® Amethyst Mini mat does not have PEMF coils, but features static magnets the same as all other Purple mats. Grey mats do not have static magnets.
There is a lot of buzz on the internet about the advantages or disadvantages of different wave shapes, frequencies, intensities, the speed of poles changing, and others. Most part is a piece of standard marketing.
Below is an unbiased review of the most popular devices and technologies presented in the market. 

PEMF DEVICES AND FREQUENCIES

There are many devices for whole-body PEMF in the U.S. market, and they use frequencies up to 1000-10000 Hz with typical use of 1-30 Hz. Most of these devices offer variable rates and different pre-installed programs.
1 Hz is one pulsation per second.
1. OMI Mat offers 1-30 Hz range 
It has two auto programs and the possibility to adjust frequencies manually.  
Auto Programs P1 or P2  each have a preset frequency.   
P1 has a range of frequencies between 12 – 22 Hz. It pulses on each rate for 7 seconds as it goes up to 22 Hz and down to 12 Hz. There is an 8-second pause before starting over again. OMI considers it an excellent setting to use in the morning or during the day.   
P2 has a range of frequencies between 8 – 12 Hz. It pulses on each rate for 7 seconds as it goes up to 12 Hz and down to 8 Hz. There is an 8-second pause before starting over again. It is a good option for an early evening or to relax by the manufacturer. 
Program P3  
P3 offers the option of customizing time and frequency. You will have an additional step to select the desired frequency manually.
2. IMRS 2000, iMRS Omnium1 PEMF Mat with 1-15 Hz range 
Other popular machines use the following sequence of frequencies:  
15 Hz - 7.5 Hz - 3 Hz - 5 Hz  
3. QRS 101 Homesystem, Quantron Resonance systems, QRS 101, QRS 101.2, QRS 101.4, QRS 101.5, QRS 101.5B, QRS 201 with 0.1 - 10.000 Hz range
It is one of the most popular manufacturers in Europe. They have many patents for frequencies and three programs:  
BASIC PROGRAM 
3Hz, 22Hz, 500Hz, 750Hz, 1000Hz dominant frequencies present, 1000Hz through 10,000Hz subtly underlying the other frequencies  
The manufacturer claims that the "basic program focuses on ion-transport, primarily protons into the cells, thus stimulating cell metabolism & cellular communication. Red blood cell separation is also encouraged.  
VITAL PROGRAM   
0.1 Hz, 10Hz, 22Hz, 250Hz, 500Hz, 750Hz Dominant frequencies present, 750Hz through 10,000Hz subtly underlying the other frequencies  
The Vital program is very similar to the Basis program; this program positively influences vitality as per the manufacturer's website. QRS states that these frequencies focus on activation of nitric oxide and oxygen to blood, tissues, and cells.
A Nobel Prize awarded the Nitric Oxide discovery as an oxygen carrier molecule for its importance in cardiovascular health.
RELAX PROGRAM   
0.3 Hz, 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz dominant frequencies present  through 1000 Hz subtly underlying the other frequencies  
The manufacturer states that these frequencies focus on activating the parasympathetic nervous system. This program will positively influence deep relaxation, immune system stimulation, insomnia, and stress reduction as well as red blood cell support for oxygen transport.  
4. MRS 2000 Designo 0.5-30 Hz 
It uses 0.5-15 Hz frequencies + Schumann Resonance Frequency 7.83 HZ, and it's higher harmonics which are 14.2, 20.8 and 27.3 Hz   
5. Healthyline TAO-Mat uses only 7,83 Hz
It is similar to our hot stone mats but without a selection of different frequencies.  
It uses only 7.83 Hz of the complex wave shape.
Also, it is manufactured in China, not in Korea like the original Ereada Amethyst mats.
6. MediCrystal and ThermoGem Amethyst and mixed Gemstone mats with adjustable PEMF frequencies
MediCrystal 4-Gems Amethyst Tourmaline Jade Agate 4-Gems Disks Bio-Magnetic mats and Purple Amethyst Agate PEMF Photon mats come with two controllers. Flipping between these controllers allows selecting pulsed electromagnetic waves frequencies between 4 Hz, 8 Hz, 10 Hz, and 14 Hz.

MediCrystal Amethyst Tourmaline Bio-Magnetic V-mats and belts, as well as ThermoGem Amethyst Tourmaline Jade PEMF Photon beds, vests, jackets, and belts,  allow adjusting PEMF frequency between 1 Hz and 30 Hz manually.

They use 12-13 auto-programs similar to those of MRS, QRS, IMRS, OMI, BEMER, etc.

Older those models used only a single frequency 10 Hz PEMF.

These mats come from China, same as Healthyline and most of the other heated stone mat brands in the U.S. market.   
7. Bemer 3000 0.5-33 Hz   
It is one of the most popular Bemer mats which uses several programs.
Bemer recommends for sleeping 0.5-7 Hz.
For active treatment, they suggest 10-33 Hz.
8. EarthPulse 0.5-15 Hz  
This product concentrates on the highest intensity and the lowest frequencies. It is the most potent device of this review. The machine generates 1100 Gauss intensity.
A lot of health claims come from the manufacturer, which makes it look a little suspicious.
They recommend one or two such electromagnets for the person. Their web-site says if you put it under the standard mattress of 10 inches thickness, you will still have around ten gausses on the top. So four EarthPulse machines should be enough even for a horse. 
With the most expensive controller, the device is entirely adjustable from 0.5 to 15 Hz. Also, many programs are pre-installed. The regular model uses 9.6 Hz or 14.3 Hz only. 
A big difference from the other PEMF devices is that the EarthPulse uses electromagnets, not copper coils to generate magnetic fields. It is not a regular PEMF mat with copper coils inside.
Also, it comes from India, and the quality issues may exist.

BRAINWAVE STATES

One of the primary use of all the PEMF machines is to entrain the brain to get relaxed or invigorated.
There are five brainwave states Gamma, Beta, Alpha, Theta, and Delta, which are frequency-specific.
Researches have shown that although one brainwave state may predominate at any given time, the remaining brain states are still present in the mix of brainwaves at all times at the trace levels in different minor areas of the brain.
When you awake from a deep sleep in preparation for getting up, the brainwave frequencies will increase from Delta to Theta and then to Alpha and finally into Beta.
So these brainwaves can be ranged from the most to the least activity, from the low-amplitude, high-frequency Beta / Gamma to the high-amplitude, low-frequency Delta. 
These brainwaves correspond to the states of mind range from high arousal to deep, dreamless sleep.

GAMMA - MULTI-PROCESSING WAVE - with 30-50 cycles a second
Gamma waves are generated by our brain when we get into the superstate of our mind.
This range of brain activity corresponds to the most alert state of mind when we fight or resolve serious problems or work over a difficult task with full attention. Gamma waves are associated with bursts of insight and high-level information processing.
Sometimes it is called “an insight wave” because the most important ideas come when we are in this condition. If you suddenly fall in love and are ready to follow your partner to another part of the world, it means that your brain generates these waves with the highest frequencies.
BETA - THE FOCUSED CONSCIOUSNESS WAVE -  from 13 to 30 cycles a second
When the brain is aroused and actively engaged in mental activities, it generates higher frequency beta waves of relatively low amplitude. Beta brainwaves correspond to an ordinary waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logical, and critical reasoning.
These waves are essential for effective functioning throughout the day; they also can translate into stress, anxiety, and restlessness. We can describe the voice of Beta as being that nagging little inner critic that gets louder the higher you go into range. Beta waves are characteristics of an actively engaged mind. A person involved in an active conversation or intellectual work would be in beta. A debater would be in high beta. A person making a speech, or a teacher, or a talk show host would all be in beta when they are doing their work.
It is the mental condition for the efficient resolution of different problems or focusing our attention on some information. Watching some films or gaming can also be associated with this brain activity. Therefore, with a majority of adults operate at Beta, stress is today’s most common health problem.

ALPHA - THE RELAXATION WAVE -  ranges from 8 to 13 cycles per second
Where Beta represented arousal, Alpha represents non-arousal. If an individual in Beta state closes eyes, the Alpha activity will become predominant. Alpha brainwaves are slower, and higher in amplitude.
A person who has completed a task and sits down to rest is often in an Alpha state. A person who takes time out to reflect or meditate is usually in an Alpha state. A person who takes a break from a conference and walks in the garden is often in an Alpha state.
It is a standard state of an awake but calm and relaxed mind. The voice of Alpha is your intuition, which becomes more transparent and profound the closer you get to the Alpha-Theta border, at 8Hz.
THETA -  MEDITATION WAVE -  with a frequency range between 4 and 8 cycles a second
Theta brainwaves are of higher amplitude and slower frequency. They correspond to the state of mind between dreaming and being alert.
A person who begins to daydream is often in a theta brainwave state. Driving on a freeway and discovering that you can't recall the last miles, is usually in a theta state induced by the tedious process of driving. It is a good sign that you should stop and get some rest.
It is typically a very positive mental state with many ideas and insights. If you run outdoors and get in the state of mental relaxation with theta brainwave frequency, you may be prone to a flow of ideas. It can also occur in the shower or bathtub or even while shaving or brushing your hair. It is a state where tasks become so automatic that you can mentally disengage from them.
It is at the Alpha-Theta border, at 8Hz, where the optimal range for visualization, mind programming, and using the creative power of your mind begins. It’s the mental state where you consciously create your reality.
Many yoga-therapists and meditation experts consider the Theta as a self-healing state of our mind.
At this frequency, you are conscious of your surroundings. However, your body is in profound relaxation.
Low theta at five cycles a second is a profound meditation state.
DELTA - DEEP SLEEPING WAVE -  typically centers around a range of 0.5 to 4 cycles per second
The final brainwave state is Delta. Deep, dreamless sleep would take you down to the slowest frequency 2 to 3 cycles a second.
When we go to bed and read for a few minutes before attempting to sleep, we are likely to be in low Beta. When we put the book down, turn off the lights and close our eyes, our brainwaves will descend from Beta to Alpha, to Theta and, finally, when we fall asleep, to Delta.
It is a well-known fact that humans dream in 90-minute cycles. When the Delta brainwave frequencies increase into the spectrum of theta brainwaves, active dreaming takes place. When rapid eye movement ( REM phase ) starts even Alpha, and Beta brain activity can be detected mainly in the front cortex zones where the visual processes are concentrated. Typically, active REM dreaming does not last long, only from 10 to 20 minutes, in total 4-5 times during all night and separated by long 1-1.5 hours of deep, dreamless sleeping with delta activity. 
We observe low delta brain activity at 0.5-2 cycles per second during transcendental meditation, where awareness is fully detached.
It is the realm of the unconscious mind and is very important for the healing process and regeneration. More in-depth and better we sleep -  more self-healing processes take place in your body, allowing you to rest and recover.
SLEEP SPINDLES - MEMORY CONSOLIDATION AND MIND RESET
Sleep spindles or sigma waves in a frequency of a high alpha range of 10-14 Hz and duration of 0.5 seconds have been detected even during the dreamless sleeping. 
Brain researchers and psychologists believe that spindles actively participate in the overnight consolidation of declarative and long term memory through the reconsolidation process. The density of spindles has been shown to increase after extensive learning of declarative memory tasks, and the degree of increase in stage 2 spindle activity correlates with memory performance.
Recent research has revealed that spindles distort the transmission of auditory information to the cortex and isolate the brain from external disturbances during sleep. They initiate reactivation, an essential part of long term memory consolidation that improves later recall performance. Spindles play a crucial role in both sensory processing and long term memory consolidation.
Interestingly, women tend to have twice as many sleep spindles as men. Female advantage has been found for episodic, emotional, and spatial memories as well as recognition of odors, faces, and pictures.
Fishes, reptiles and other non-mammals do not have these spindles, but most parts of animals sleep with only half of their brains.

By the way, Ereada automatic programs include "sleep spindle emulation technology."
We can also compare the brainwaves while driving:
GAMMA - a competitive auto race with high speeds and difficulties demands the maximum driver concentration. But it also may be achieved by street racers unconsciously leading their brain to maximum possible activity but recklessly risking their and others’ lives. 
BETA - a country road alert but calm and safe driving with full attention. But you can feel some emotions and be stressed by a reckless driver and your rhythms may become unstable with other frequencies interfering.
ALPHA - short highway safe driving when you do not feel drowsy but feel calm. Many drivers turn on music to get more alert and move to the beta condition.
THETA - the repetitious nature of long highway drive induces THETA activity of the brain with a risk of drowsing and falling asleep. Short break to sleep half an hour or some coffee and music may move you to alpha or beta zones.
DELTA - dreaming drivers cause a lot of accidents. It sometimes happens with truck drivers during very long routes. Better to stop and sleep in the cabin and come home safe where the family is waiting.
Brain Entrainment with PEMF

BRAINWAVE ENTRAINMENT

The theory of brainwave entrainment process suggests a practice to synchronize brain waves with an external stimulus. A lot of researches study the use of sound, vibrations, and magnetic field frequencies for brainwave entrainment. 
Providing the brain with a PEMF signal within the Beta range (from 14 to 30 Hz), for instance, will likely cause a more significant portion of the brain to synchronize with that frequency, thus having an overall alerting effect.
If we use 50-60Hz PEMF, it may cause even higher activation effect moving the brain into the Gamma range (from 30 and up to 50-100 Hz).
Contrary 8-10 Hz PEMF (most popular) is calming anti-stress moving the brain to the Alpha-Theta border at 8Hz. 8-10 Hz brain activity is associated with a calm and relaxed mind, meditation, creativity, and waking self-consciousness.
If we use lower frequencies as 2-5Hz PEMF, you may feel very relaxed and even get asleep. Or you may still be fully aware and be in a very positive mental state with many ideas and insights. It may also be great for deep meditation.
If we go up to 10-15 Hz PEMF, we may induce Alpha-wave relaxation and Sigma waves spindles moderating our memory processes and dreaming.
Of course, it does not mean that the above works the same for everybody, but may be used as a kind of guide for self-experimenting to find the best way to use the feature.
Frequencies applied to the body, away from the head, can still create brainwave entrainment. How well they entrain will depend on the receptivity of that particular person and of course on the intensity of waves. Sometimes lower energies are preferable. Other folks do not feel anything less than hundreds of Gauss.

OTHER BENEFITS

In addition to brainwave entrainment, PEMF may have a regeneration effect on the body cells membranes and other organs and tissues.
We do not make any health claims about this technology or our products, but there is a lot of information about scientific studies on Pubmed.gov, and in related literature showing that it may work well for bone fractures, and tendons accelerated repair, as well as for many other issues. 
While some of the reviews point to the use of specific frequencies to help in certain situations, benefits may well happen across a much broader spectrum of frequencies.
It depends mainly on PEMF intensity which should be enough to penetrate tissues at least 5-6 inch deep and bring there enough energy to stimulate cell repair processes.
It is also preferable to provide a range of frequencies as wide as possible so that you may pick and choose the one that works best for you.
Some researchers consider that it is vital to follow Schumann resonances (SR) which is known as a natural set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum.

SCHUMANN RESONANCE

Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere.
The fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth-ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth.
This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 4.11 Hz (Earth frequency) and its higher harmonics 7.83 Hz (fundamental),14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz, 27.3 Hz, 33.8 Hz, 60 Hz.
All of these frequencies fluctuate around their nominal values and vary depending on geo-location and lighting activity.
Real measurements show that these harmonics may be within the following ranges 7.5-8 Hz, 14-15 Hz, 20-21 Hz, 26-27.5 Hz, 33-34 Hz.

FREQUENCIES AND EFFECTS

So really, different frequencies are used for different types of sessions.   
If we use 30-60Hz PEMF, it may cause higher activation effect. 
Contrary 8-10 Hz PEMF (most popular) may be calming and anti-stress. 8-10 Hz brain activity is associated with a calm and relaxed mind, meditation, creativity, and waking consciousness. 
If we use lower frequencies as 2-5Hz PEMF, you may feel very relaxed and even get asleep. Or you may still be fully aware and be in a very positive mental state with many ideas and insights. It may also be great for deep meditation. 
If we go up to 10-15 Hz PEMF, we may induce Alpha-wave relaxation and Sigma waves spindles moderating our memory processes and dreaming.  
Again, it does not mean that the above works the same for everybody. 

PEMF WAVE-SHAPE AND INTENSITY

The most reliable by our opinion source of information about the PEMF is Dr. Pawluk's website which is not associated or affiliated with our company. Doctor Pawluk even does not mention our devices in promotional materials or comparative information.
His outstanding book "Power Tools for Health: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields (Pemfs) Help You” is available on Amazon. Alternatively, you can read an abstract free on Google Books or check for articles of Dr. Pwaluk's website.
Dr. Pawluk studied many years of clinical use of PEMF in Eastern Europe, where it is standard medical practice. He considers that the most critical feature of PEMF is not a frequency or a waveshape but intensity.
Some strong arguments support this opinion.
1. It is much more difficult, and you have to use much more expensive technology to build robust PEMF systems. 
In the heated stone mats with the primary function of FIR crystal rays, the copper coils lay under the thick layer of crystals. We need to use more powerful technics so that the magnetic pulsation could penetrate through and get into the tissues. 
Usually, all thin PEMF mats available in the market are very weak. They use DC electricity (like batteries), and it is rather challenging to get high potency out of the 12V power source.
2. Many customers do not feel any benefits of low-intensity PEMF systems.
Even the medium-strong fields like 100-400 gauss on the surface of the coil, will go down to several gausses or even to mG with a distance of 6-8 inches. If we speak about the low range of intensity, if it falls below 50-100 mG, it becomes like white noise. The Earth own magnetic field may naturally suppress it to zero if measured even 3-4 inches from the coil. All magnetic fields loose power with distance as per the reverse square law. They go down to undetectable, but if you have initially high intensity, it will get deeper into the body.   
There is a lot of buzz and manufacturers' claims of high or low gauss PEMF intensities for different devices, and about the unique PEMF testers with many thousands of US$ dollars values. 
We add in the sets of Ereada PEMF mats a simple plastic vial with a small piece of magnetic metal inside free of charge. When you use it, it shows both the availability of PEMF and the frequency. Also, any cheap EMF tester will blink when the PEMF feature is ON.
Another standard method to understand PEMF power is to check the size of the coil and its power consumption. 10W Coil cannot produce 10000 Gauss even on the surface.
3. There is a lot of marketing buzz around ideal “square” wave shapes, NASA studies, 7.83 Hz magic frequencies claimed to match the Schumann resonance first harmonic. 
Many manufacturers on low-powered DC PEMF mats like to refer to minimal NASA studies. DC allows getting any shape of the PEMF wave, while the AC electricity natural wave-shape is sinusoid. The AC PEMF has the same sine waves.
The PEMF technology applications to health physiotherapy as a medical tradition came from Russia, Eastern Europe, Korea, and Japan. All types of wave shapes, frequencies, programs, and devices are used and researched there.
Many clinical studies took place, and millions of people get this kind of remedy like a routine. So-called “weak” PEMF devices are considered scam or more like magic devices there. Of course, there may be some bio-resonant effect in the place of contact between the coils and the body, but it will be weak.
Local researchers same as Dr. Pawluk consider that the rather high gauss level intensity is a must-have for the PEMF machine. The potency is more important than frequency is the regular argument there.

HOW TO START YOUR EREADA PEMF MAT

However, the most important when you start to experience your mat is to understand how you react to PEMF. 
You need to study contraindications and consult your doctor. Magnetic waves may also affect the functionality of the pacemakers, defibrillators, and other implanted devices, so make sure you have approval from your therapist.
Some PEMF machines users report that they may feel overstimulated with vibration feeling throughout the body. It may take place when an oversensitive to electricity and magnetism person uses this feature for 15-20 minutes together with the high heat levels. 
It is better to try the several minutes PEMF sessions of the lowest frequency at the starting point. 
Begin to use magnetism without warming or on the most moderate heat to check how it works. Later you can gradually increase the length, intensity, and frequency of magnetism sessions.
Only when you know that you react well try PEMF magnetism together with FIR heat and other functions.  
Enjoy and Be Healthy No Matter How Old You Are! 


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